Has your puppy started acting really tired? Does he not want to eat or go for a walk? If so, you might start to suspect something is seriously wrong, so you take him to the veterinarian right away. Maybe they run some tests and it turns out your puppy likely has leptospirosis. Ever heard of it?
What Is Leptospirosis?
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both animals and humans. It is caused by infection with pathogenic species of Leptospira, a type of spirochete bacteria. Leptospirosis is considered one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world.
What Causes Leptospirosis?
Leptospirosis is spread through the urine of infected animals. Many different animal species can carry and transmit Leptospira bacteria, including rodents, dogs, livestock like cattle and pigs, and wild animals. When these animals urinate into soil or water, the bacteria can survive and infect other animals or humans.
Humans typically get infected through contact with urine-contaminated soil, food, or water. The bacteria can enter the body through mucous membranes, abrasions in the skin, or by ingesting contaminated food or water. Leptospira bacteria thrive in warm, wet environments. Outbreaks often occur after flooding or during the rainy season in tropical areas when conditions allow the bacteria to spread more easily.
Symptoms and Effects The symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild to severe. In the early stages, infected people may experience:
- Flu-like symptoms - Fever, chills, headache, muscle aches
- Conjunctivitis (red, irritated eyes)
Without treatment, more serious complications can develop in some patients:
- Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes around the spinal cord and brain)
- Liver and kidney failure
- Bleeding problems
- Respiratory distress
- Death (in 5-15% of cases)
The disease progresses quickly, so these advanced symptoms can appear just a few days after initial mild symptoms emerge. Severe leptospirosis is also called Weil's disease. Recovery may take several months without proper treatment.
Populations at Risk Certain populations have a higher risk of contracting leptospirosis, including:
- Farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, dairy farm employees, and others with animal contact
- Miners, sewer workers, and others exposed to contaminated water sources
- Military personnel, campers, and recreationists who drink untreated water
- People living in urban slums with poor sanitation systems and rodent problems
- Flood cleanup crews
- Travelers to regions where leptospirosis is endemic
Leptospirosis is estimated to cause over 1 million severe cases and nearly 60,000 deaths per year worldwide. Outbreaks frequently occur in tropical regions with wet seasons conducive to bacterial spread. Parts of Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean continue to see high rates of infection.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Doctors can diagnose leptospirosis through blood tests that detect antibodies the body produces to fight the infection. Isolating and identifying Leptospira bacteria from blood, urine, or tissue samples can also confirm diagnosis.
Most people with leptospirosis recover fully with antibiotic treatment. For severe cases involving organ failure, intensive hospital care may be required. Without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to lasting complications or death.
Early treatment is key, as antibiotics are most effective in the first few days after symptoms appear. However, diagnosis in this phase can be difficult because antibodies may not be detectable. Doctors often must start treatment based on clinical suspicion alone in regions where leptospirosis is common.
A few basic precautions can help prevent leptospirosis infection when traveling to affected areas:
- Avoid swimming, wading, or drinking untreated water sources after heavy rains or flooding
- Prevent rodent infestations in the home
- Wear protective clothing if exposure to animal urine or contaminated soil/water is likely
- Ask doctors about leptospirosis vaccine if spending extended time in endemic regions or participating in high-risk outdoor work
With climate change causing more extreme weather events, experts warn that leptospirosis outbreaks will become more common worldwide. Improving sanitation infrastructure and animal vaccination programs in developing regions could help control this neglected tropical disease.
Keep Your Furry Friend Safe
Leptospirosis is spread by the urine of infected animals and causes symptoms ranging from mild flu to fatal organ failure. While treatable with antibiotics, leptospirosis continues to cause tens of thousands of deaths annually across the globe, disproportionately impacting tropical regions with poorer populations. However, improving public health safeguards could help control transmission and prevent many unnecessary deaths from this widespread yet often overlooked bacterial infection.
Cases can be mild as well, so while you should be concerned, it’s not a death warrant. Once effected, antibiotics can help with those milder cases. Prevention will help as well. There is a vaccine available, but it is not in the regular set, so you will have to ask for it.
This bacteria can spread to humans as well, causing flu-like symptoms.
For more information about whether your dog needs the vaccine, call your vet.